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They were also joined by families from northern Italy, in some cases related to the Aleramici dynasty of the Marchesi di Monferrato and Marchesi del Vasto e Saluzzo, who arrived in southern Italy as a result of dynastic marriages into the ruling family of the Norman counts of Apulia and Sicily, or as adventurers.
The Norman dynasty of the kingdom of Sicily became extinct in the legitimate male line at the end of the 12th century.
A few can be connected to noble families in Normandy, but they are the exception.
The new Norman rulers established their own network of counties and appointed their own followers as counts.
It is noteworthy that the primary sources so far consulted do not mention any counts who were installed on the island of Sicily itself, the territories established on the Italian mainland presumably being less challenging to maintain.
Two comprehensive documents provide an effective census of nobility in the kingdom of Sicily for the mid-12th and mid-13th centuries.
Despite access to many sources, it has proved difficult to reconstitute many of these noble Norman families for more than a couple of generations.
Nor has much information been found on the precise origins of the Norman counts who settled in southern Italy.